Tuesday, December 6, 2016


Wednesday, November 30, 2016


👀 Corneal abrasion is the most common ocular complication after general anesthesia

👀 Ischemic Optic neuropathy (ION) and Central Retinal Artery Occlusion (CRAO) are the commonest causes for postoperative visual loss


🌵More common among the two

🌵Most often seen after prolonged surgery in prone position 

🌵Venous congestion--> Raised Intra Ocular Pressure (IOP) due to Raised Intra Orbital Pressure --> Intra Orbital ‘Compartment Syndrome’

🌵Hypotension, Diabetes, Vascular disease, Smoking etc also may be important in the etiopathogenesis


➖ Reduce optic nerve edema as it passes through posterior scleral foramen with steroids and mannitol 

➖ Optimal oxygen delivery by ensuring normal blood pressure and hematocrit  

➖ Clear all obstruction to venous drainage 

🌵Chance of visual recovery is less


🌵 External pressure on eye and embolism are risk factors 

🌵 An echocardiogram and carotid ultrasound may help us to find an embolic source

Reference: White E, David DB. Care of the eye during anaesthesia and intensive care. Anaesth Intens Care Med. 2007; 8(9): 383–386.


Sugammadex acts by forming a complex with steroidal Neuro Muscular Blocking Agents such as rocuronium and vecuronium and reduces their concentrations in the neuromuscular junction. 

Because of its inert structure, direct drug interactions are rarely expected with sugammadex. Two types of drug interactions may occur with sugammadex by displacement or capturing.

Drugs interacting with sugammadex by displacement : toremifene, fusidic acid, and flucloxacillin, could potentially affect the efficacy of sugammadex due to rocuronium 
or vecuronium being displaced from sugammadex.

Capturing interactions may occur if sugammadex binds with other drugs (i.e., hormonal contraceptives), and reduces their free plasma concentration. In addition, sugammadex might have decreased efficacy for rocuronium or vecuronium due to it binding with another 

Cyclodextrins have been reported to form inclusion complexes with other compounds.

In an in vitro experimental model of functionally innervated human muscle cells Rezonja et al. found that dexamethasone led to a dose-dependent inhibition of sugammadex reversal; but Ersel Gulec et al, who investigated the clinical relevance of the interaction between dexamethasone and sugammadex in humans failed to demonstrate any inhibitory effect of dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg) on the reversal time of sugammadex in children.

N.B.(DO YOU KNOW?): It is clearly demonstrated that dexamethasone attenuates rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade when administered 2 to 3 hours before the induction of anesthesia; but not when dexamethasone is given at induction

Reference: The Effect of Intravenous Dexamethasone on Sugammadex Reversal Time in Children Undergoing Adenotonsillectomy; Ersel Gulec, Ebru Biricik, Mediha Turktan, Zehra Hatipoglu and Hakki Unlugenc, April 2016 • Volume 122 • Number 4, anesthesia-analgesia

Thursday, November 24, 2016


💪🏼The tricyclic antidepressants prevent the reuptake of monoamines, including serotonin and noradrenaline, as both pathways are important in the pain propagation. So the mixed reuptake drugs work better than more selective drugs like SSRIs

💪🏼But serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SNRIs), for example, venlafaxine & duloxetine and the atypical antidepressant group, such as bupropion and mirtazapine are also effective for some chronic pain conditions and are increasingly used because of their improved tolerability

💪🏼The superiority of tricyclics, particularly clomipramine and amitriptyline, in the management of pain may be also explained by their additional action on sodium channels blockade ( which is an action that SNRIs do not exhibit.)

💪🏼The dose of amitriptyline to treat pain is much lower when compared to that needed to treat depression 

💪🏼The analgesic action has a faster onset, whereas antidepressant action takes weeks to start

💪🏼The sedative action of tricyclic antidepressants are helpful in treating the sleep disturbances associated with neuropathic syndromes. Nortriptyline is less sedative than amitriptyline.

#antidepressants , #analgesics , #PainManagement , #ChronicPain 

Reference: Medscape, Pharmacogenetics and Analgesic Effects of Antidepressants in Chronic Pain Management

Frédérique Rodieux; Valérie Piguet; Patricia Berney; Jules Desmeules; Marie Besson, Personalized Medicine. 2015;12(2):163-175. 

Ryder S A, Stannard C F. Treatment of chronic pain: antidepressant, antiepileptic and antiarrhythmic drugs. Contin Educ Anaesth Crit Care Pain 2005; 5: 18–20 . 

A TRAVELOGUE: The long journey of #Insulin

 ✔️Insulin is produced by beta cells of islets of Langerhans. 

✔️It is produced from the pro hormone, 'preproinsulin'® in endoplasmic reticulum. A portion of the structure is cleaved off✂️ and the remaining portion is folded with the help of C-peptide to form 'proinsulin'® 

✔️The C-peptide portion is then removed✂️ to form Insulin 

✔️This active 💪🏼Insulin is transported 🚛 via Golgi apparatus to cytoplasmic granules for exocytosis💦 into plasma

✔️Insulin then binds with its receptor on Insulin sensitive❣️ cells

 ✔️Insulin receptor 🎛 is a tetramer consisting of 2 alpha & 2 beta units. 

✔️Insulin binds to the alpha unit on the cell membrane, while the beta unit, which spans the cell membrane activates🔥 , tyrosine kinase™ and the second messenger system

✔️This activates🔥 cytoplasmic vesicles containing transport molecules🚤

✔️The vesicles fuse with the cell membrane to incorporate the transport molecules🚤 into the cell membrane, which facilitate the transport of glucose into the cell.


🔻Insulin binding to the receptor activates an intracellular second-messenger system via tyrosine kinase. 

🔻Glucagon binding to its receptor activates a G-protein second-messenger system via adenylyl cyclase.

"Insulin is TricKy"

"Glucagon is ACcurate"

#DiabetesMellitus , #endocrinology , #physiology , #pharmacology , #biochemistry , #MedicalExam , #mnemonic , #anesthesia

Wednesday, November 23, 2016


Medical Etymology : Terms & Root words

➰ Internist - Internus = inside (Latin)

➰Gynecologist- Gyne= woman , Logos = Science (Greek)

➰Obstetrician- Obstetrix = midwife (Latin), ician = expert

➰ Pediatrician - paidos= child , iatreia= medical healing , ician= expert (Greek)

➰Dermatologist - derma= skin (Greek)

➰Ophthalmologist- ophthalmos = eye , logos = science (Greek)

➰Anesthesia- an= without, aisthesis = sensation --> anaisthesia (Greek)

➰Neurologist - neuron = nerve , logos = science (Greek)

➰Geriatrics - geras = old age , iatreia = medical healing (Greek) 

➰ Psychiatry - psyche= mind , iatreia = medical healing (Greek) 

➰Cardiologist - kardia= heart , logos= science (Greek)

➰Orthopedist - orthos= straight, paidos= child (Greek) At the time of coining this word, correction of spinal curvature was a main concern among practitioners of Orthopedics

➰Orthodontist- orthos= straight , odontos= tooth(Greek)

Tuesday, November 22, 2016


⏫ There is increased(⏫) levels of homocystine and methionine in blood and urine due to the deficiency of Cystathionine B synthetase which catalyses the conversion of homocystine and serine into cystathionine

⏫ Raised cystine levels reduce the resistance of endothelium against thrombosis, reduces the activity of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) and increase platelet aggregation. So there is high incidence of thromboembolism. We have to ensure good hydration, good cardiac output,early mobilisation and should provide mechanical +/- pharmacological thromboprophylaxis. Many patients will be on anticoagulation. If untreated 50% of patients will have thromboembolic complications and the mortality is about 20% before the age of 30 years.  So both modification of the dosing of anticoagulants ( especially if regional anesthesia is planned) if patient is receiving them and providing prophylaxis against DVT are important elements of perioperative care. The incidence of thrombotic complications are more in pregnant patients. 

⏫ Blood viscosity and platelet adhesiveness can be reduced by dextran, and the prior administration of pyridoxine

⏫ Reduced cystine results in weak collagen and fragmentation of elastic tissue of large arteries. There is high incidence of vascular diseases like Cerebrovascular diseases, Coronary Artery Disease, Peripheral Vascular Diseases

⏫ Patients may have increased insulin levels resulting in hypoglycemia. Dextrose infusion will prevent hypoglycaemia.

⏫ Acute psychiatritc symptoms, delirium etc have been reported and the altered availability of homocysteine, methionine and cystiene which are having glutamate agonist properties, has been postulated as a factor which promotes this.

⏫ Regional anaesthesia has certain theoretical disadvantages. Penetration of a large epidural blood vessel might initiate thrombosis, as may the accompanying venous stasis of the lower limbs.

Reference: ANAESTHESIA DATABOOK, A Perioperative and Peripartum Manual, 3RD EDITION
Rosemary Mason

#anaesthesia , #dvt , #biochemistry ,


👆🏿aPTT tests the intrinsic and common pathways of coagulation 

👆🏿Though it is included commonly as a part of coagulation profile assessment, it's primary uses are to detect coagulation factor deficiency and titration of heparin therapy

👆🏿An isolated elevation of aPTT may indicate 

➖deficiency of Factor VIII or IX or XI or XII

➖acquired clotting factor inhibitors 

➖presence of Lupus anticoagulant 

👆🏿N.B.:- Factor VIII deficiency is Haemophilia A, Factor IX deficiency is Haemophilia B and Factor XI deficiency is Haemophilia C

👆🏿If factor levels are >30% of normal, aPTT may remain normal, for e.g. in mild von Willebrand disease [raised aPTT + prolonged Bleeding Time (BT)], in mild hemophilia etc

Reference: Martlew V. Peri-operative management of patients with coagulation disorders. Br J Anaesth. 2000; 85(3): 446–455.

Wednesday, November 16, 2016


# Most often, postop exacerbation, if it occurs is due to surgical complications like fever and infections

# Even minor increases in body temperatures are not tolerated well

# With the use of Suxamethonium, there is a risk of hyperkalemia

# Both resistance and prolongation of NMBA response are seen

# Complications have been reported with spinal anesthesia (Weak myelin sheath and direct neurotoxicity from LAs have been suggested as reason for this)

# Epidural is safe in this regard (As in epidural technique, there will be a lower concentration of LA in white matter)

# We should explain the chance of exacerbation of symptoms before any form of regional anesthesia

#multiplesclerosis , #anesthesia , #anaesthesia