Tuesday, December 6, 2016
Wednesday, November 30, 2016
Thursday, November 24, 2016
💪🏼The tricyclic antidepressants prevent the reuptake of monoamines, including serotonin and noradrenaline, as both pathways are important in the pain propagation. So the mixed reuptake drugs work better than more selective drugs like SSRIs
💪🏼But serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SNRIs), for example, venlafaxine & duloxetine and the atypical antidepressant group, such as bupropion and mirtazapine are also effective for some chronic pain conditions and are increasingly used because of their improved tolerability
💪🏼The superiority of tricyclics, particularly clomipramine and amitriptyline, in the management of pain may be also explained by their additional action on sodium channels blockade ( which is an action that SNRIs do not exhibit.)
💪🏼The dose of amitriptyline to treat pain is much lower when compared to that needed to treat depression
💪🏼The analgesic action has a faster onset, whereas antidepressant action takes weeks to start
💪🏼The sedative action of tricyclic antidepressants are helpful in treating the sleep disturbances associated with neuropathic syndromes. Nortriptyline is less sedative than amitriptyline.
#antidepressants , #analgesics , #PainManagement , #ChronicPain
Reference: Medscape, Pharmacogenetics and Analgesic Effects of Antidepressants in Chronic Pain Management
Frédérique Rodieux; Valérie Piguet; Patricia Berney; Jules Desmeules; Marie Besson, Personalized Medicine. 2015;12(2):163-175.
Ryder S A, Stannard C F. Treatment of chronic pain: antidepressant, antiepileptic and antiarrhythmic drugs. Contin Educ Anaesth Crit Care Pain 2005; 5: 18–20 .
✔️Insulin is produced by beta cells of islets of Langerhans.
✔️It is produced from the pro hormone, 'preproinsulin'® in endoplasmic reticulum. A portion of the structure is cleaved off✂️ and the remaining portion is folded with the help of C-peptide to form 'proinsulin'®
✔️The C-peptide portion is then removed✂️ to form Insulin
✔️This active 💪🏼Insulin is transported 🚛 via Golgi apparatus to cytoplasmic granules for exocytosis💦 into plasma
✔️Insulin then binds with its receptor on Insulin sensitive❣️ cells
✔️Insulin receptor 🎛 is a tetramer consisting of 2 alpha & 2 beta units.
✔️Insulin binds to the alpha unit on the cell membrane, while the beta unit, which spans the cell membrane activates🔥 , tyrosine kinase™ and the second messenger system
✔️This activates🔥 cytoplasmic vesicles containing transport molecules🚤
✔️The vesicles fuse with the cell membrane to incorporate the transport molecules🚤 into the cell membrane, which facilitate the transport of glucose into the cell.
Ⓜ️NEMO> MECHANISM OF ACTION: INSULIN Vs GLUCAGON
🔻Insulin binding to the receptor activates an intracellular second-messenger system via tyrosine kinase.
🔻Glucagon binding to its receptor activates a G-protein second-messenger system via adenylyl cyclase.
"Insulin is TricKy"
"Glucagon is ACcurate"
#DiabetesMellitus , #endocrinology , #physiology , #pharmacology , #biochemistry , #MedicalExam , #mnemonic , #anesthesia
Wednesday, November 23, 2016
➰ Internist - Internus = inside (Latin)
➰Gynecologist- Gyne= woman , Logos = Science (Greek)
➰Obstetrician- Obstetrix = midwife (Latin), ician = expert
➰ Pediatrician - paidos= child , iatreia= medical healing , ician= expert (Greek)
➰Dermatologist - derma= skin (Greek)
➰Ophthalmologist- ophthalmos = eye , logos = science (Greek)
➰Anesthesia- an= without, aisthesis = sensation --> anaisthesia (Greek)
➰Neurologist - neuron = nerve , logos = science (Greek)
➰Geriatrics - geras = old age , iatreia = medical healing (Greek)
➰ Psychiatry - psyche= mind , iatreia = medical healing (Greek)
➰Cardiologist - kardia= heart , logos= science (Greek)
➰Orthopedist - orthos= straight, paidos= child (Greek) At the time of coining this word, correction of spinal curvature was a main concern among practitioners of Orthopedics
➰Orthodontist- orthos= straight , odontos= tooth(Greek)
Tuesday, November 22, 2016
A FEW CLUES IN INTERPRETING AN ISOLATED PROLONGATION OF ACTIVATED PARTIAL THROMBOPLASTIN TIME (aPTT)
👆🏿aPTT tests the intrinsic and common pathways of coagulation
👆🏿Though it is included commonly as a part of coagulation profile assessment, it's primary uses are to detect coagulation factor deficiency and titration of heparin therapy
👆🏿An isolated elevation of aPTT may indicate
➖deficiency of Factor VIII or IX or XI or XII
➖acquired clotting factor inhibitors
➖presence of Lupus anticoagulant
👆🏿N.B.:- Factor VIII deficiency is Haemophilia A, Factor IX deficiency is Haemophilia B and Factor XI deficiency is Haemophilia C
👆🏿If factor levels are >30% of normal, aPTT may remain normal, for e.g. in mild von Willebrand disease [raised aPTT + prolonged Bleeding Time (BT)], in mild hemophilia etc
Reference: Martlew V. Peri-operative management of patients with coagulation disorders. Br J Anaesth. 2000; 85(3): 446–455.