🚩The manifestations are due to hypervolemia, hyponatremia and due to the direct toxicity of the irrigation fluids like 1.5% glycine
▪️FACTORS INCREASING THE ABSORPTION OF THE IRRIGATION FLUID ( AND THUS CONTRIBUTING TO THE HYPERVOLEMIA )
🚩Long duration of the surgery: the irrigation fluid is absorbed at the rate of 20-30 mL/ min and so the volume absorbed increases with the duration of the surgery
🚩High pressure delivery of the irrigation fluid especially from a considerable height;
🚩Low venous pressures
🚩Excessive bleeding (= there are more open veins)
🚩Large prostate (>50g)
🚩Headache, Restlessness, Agitation, Confusion, Convulsions, Coma; pulmonary oedema may also set in. If patient is under general anesthesia, these symptoms will get masked.
▪️MANAGEMENT FROM SURGICAL SIDE:
🚩Coagulating bleeding points and terminating surgery as soon as possible.
🚩Reduce / stop fluid administration. Diuretics may be required in the presence of pulmonary oedema
🚩Intubation to protect the airway and mechanical ventilation to support respiration may be required
🚩Anti-convulsants, if needed, to treat seizures
🚩Hypertonic saline should be considered for severe hyponatremia (<120 mmol L−1) or in the presence of severe neurological symptoms.
👉🏿Faster rates of administration can potentially lead to central pontine myelinolysis. Treatment should stop once symptoms have resolved or the serum sodium is more than 125 mmol L−1. Such therapy is best delivered in a high-dependency environment.